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NEWSPAPERS, 1850-1880 

4U0 Copies 
of which 350 copies are for sale 

California Mining Town 
Newspapers, 1850-1880 

A Bibliography Compiled by 


San Fernando Valley, California . . . 1954 



Copyright 1954 
Helen S. Giffen 

All Rights Reserved 

Library of Congress Catalog Number 54-9892 

W F. S T F. R N I. O R F. PRFSS 

A Note On The Author 

"DORN in Alabama, Helen S. Giffen became a "native" 
Californian at the age of one year, when her parents 
moved to the Los Angeles area. Her interest in the history 
of early California began when, as a small girl, she ex- 
plored the Mission San Gabriel, even falling into the old 
wall of cactus surrounding the mission orchard, thereby 
receiving a baptism of thorns. 

Her youthful curiosity developed into the mature in- 
terest of the historian, tempered with a knowledge that 
many historians lack: that the things of the past impose 
influences on the present far beyond our conscious recog- 
nition. Her study of California and Southwest history 
was intensified by association with the Southwest Museum, 
where she was first librarian of the Munk Library of 
Arizoniana. This period of librarianship was to have a 
lasting influence, and has kept her in the field of his- 
torical research. 

After her marriage Mrs. Giffen, in company with her 
husband, undertook a survey of the extant adobe houses 

VI 1 


of early California. Some fifteen years were spent photo- 
graphing them in black and white and kodachrome. The 
result was a pictorial history of approximately 1800 photo- 
graphs of these adobes, from the Mexican border to the 
Oregon line. 

Interest in the adobe houses of early California did not 
prevent her from doing field work and research in many 
phases of western history. Westways, the Southern Cali- 
fornia Historical Society Quarterly, and other publica- 
tions devoted to the west record her work. One of the first 
full-length biographies of General Mariano Guadalupe 
Vallejo was written by Mrs. Giffen and appeared serially 
in the Pony Express Courier, With Arthur Woodward, 
Mrs. Giffen co-authored The Story of El Tejon, The 
Rancho and The Fort in 194-2. In 1950 she and her hus- 
band wrote The Story of Golden Gate Park. 

Since 1943, Mrs. Giffen has been associated with The 
Society of California Pioneers, first as research librarian, 
and currently as Secretary and Editor of Publications. 

Having long ago recognized the need for a bibliography 
of California mining town newspapers, she has devoted 
many years of research to its preparation. Students, his- 
torians, and those who wish to recapture the spirit of the 
lush times of the California mining towns will be grate- 
ful for this long overdue guide to a most exciting era of 
American journalism. 



Hubert Howe Bancroft wrote: "The story of one 
mining-camp was the story of mankind ; and to follow it 
after death was the story of the gods." Where better can 
one "behold the picture" than in the newspaper columns 
and advertisements, yellow and dingy with age, of those 
stirring times? 

J. E. Reynolds. 

Van Nuys, California, 



tif\NE of the most interesting and wonderful features 
of California is her newspaper press ... It has be- 
come one of the most powerful agents known among us, 
and holds a high and honorable rank throughout the 
land." So wrote the editor of the Big Tree Bulletin, in 
May, 1858. 

When J. Heckendorn expressed the above opinion Cali- 
fornia's press was still in its infancy. Nevertheless, it was 
already exhibiting signs of becoming not only a healthy 
juvenile but a strong adult. The men who had come with 
the gold rush had as their objective the wresting of 
fortunes from the streams and hillsides; but they were 
also hungry for human companionship and news, not only 
local, but from home as well. They were also anxious to 
express their own opinions, political and otherwise, 
through a local press. Their rough and ready spirit found 
reflection in the mining town newspapers; and many a gold 
seeker turned editor when the opportunity offered. Gold 
and printer's ink mixed freely along the Mother Lode; 



and even after gold had ceased to be the backbone of the 
communities it had built, the ink still flowed in quantity. 
The rattle and bang of the presses continued to shake the 
floors of the buildings long after the mines had lost their 
lure. Some of these local sheets that had their beginnings 
among the Long Toms and Rockers grew to maturity 
through the era of the Monitors and are still being pub- 
lished a century later. 

In the columns of these early newspapers were advo- 
cated mining and land reforms that were later written into 
California law. Political views, especially during the days 
of the Lincoln-Douglas debates and the Civil War, saw 
newspapers established and opinions expressed that some- 
times sent the editors to jail. Many an argonaut who had 
served his apprenticeship in the East found his way to the 
gold rush towns, there to lend his skill to the make-up of 
the local sheet. Enos Christman, the Philadelphia printer, 
came west in 1850, and had the honor of issuing the first 
edition of the Sonora Herald. Warren B. Ewer, John 
Rollin Ridge, who started Murietta on the road to fame, 
James Coffroth, Prentice Mulford and many others con- 
tributed their share to the literary excellence of these 
local publications. 

Thus we find in the columns of California's early min- 
ing press an evidence of culture that the rough and ready 
times belied. The crucial years of the early 1860s were 



the incentive for some fine editorial rhetoric in support of 
the Union or the Confederacy as the case might be. Politi- 
cal repercussions throughout the world found expression 
in the gold rush newspapers. Many an editor, inspired by 
the heat of the moment, began publication of a paper that 
was doomed to death when its political cause was either 
lost or won. 

The historian, the writer, the student of California's 
past cannot afford to overlook the columns of these early 
sheets. Each contains a wealth of information reflecting 
the local scene as well as depicting the life of that certain 
breed of men who left the security of their eastern homes 
to find fortune in an untried land. 

In compiling this list it has been my aim to include not 
only those newspapers that had their beginnings when the 
magnet of the mines was drawing thousands to Califor- 
nia, but also those that followed in the more stable days, 
when the railroad had made its way across the Sierra, when 
the placers had been worked out, the hydraulic nozzle 
outlawed, and the miner had taken his tools and departed 
for other "strikes," leaving the merchant to keep alive the 
towns that survived the great drama of men's greed 
for gold. 

After some consideration as to the best way in which to 
present these newspapers, it was decided to list them under 
the town in which they were published. The localities 



covered are the Mother Lode, north to Weaverville and 
Yreka, across the Sierra to the camps of Mono and Inyo 
Counties, and southward to the region of Fresno and Kern 
Counties. This includes, so far as it has been possible to 
ascertain, all the mining towns in the State that had news- 
papers in the years 1850 to 1880. 

The editors of these papers came and went as the tides 
of fortune rose and fell. They were the backbone of the 
mining press and their influence was widespread. Too 
much praise cannot be accorded these hardy men of the 
fluent pen. To their memory this history of the press of 
the early mining towns is dedicated. 

Helen S. Giffen. 

San Francisco, California 


Table of Contents 

A Note On The Author 


Sonora Herald — Front Page Reproduction 
Big Tree Bulletin — Front Page Reproduction . 
California Mining Town Newspapers . 
Butte Record — Front Page Reproduction 
Folsom Dispatch — Front Page Reproduction . 
Oroville Daily Butte Record — Front Page Reproduction 
San Juan Press — Front Page Reproduction 
Grass Valley Telegraph — Front Page Reproduction 
Foothills Ensign — Front Page Reproduction . 
Alphabetical List of Mining Town Newspapers . 
Alphabetical List of Mining Town Editors . 
Acknowledgments and Bibliography . 






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Big Tree Bulletin, first issue. 

NEWSPAPERS, 1850-1880 

California Mining Town Newspapers 

Angels Camp: Calaveras County. 

Calaveras Mountaineer — Semi-weekly, 1872-1873. 

Mountain Echo — Weekly, 1879. First issue May 5, 
1 879. Myron Hill Reed, editor and publisher. 

Auburn: Placer County. 

Democratic Signal — 1860-1861. First issue August 4, 
1860. Editor R. C. Poland, followed by Joseph Scobey. 
Publisher S. T. Newell. A campaign paper that espoused 
the cause of Douglas. When the favorite was defeated 
Newell sold out to R. J. Steele and went to San Francisco. 
Steele changed the name of the paper to the States Rights 
Journal and issued the first copy August 10, 1861. It 
ceased publication within a few weeks. 

Herald — See Placer Herald. 

Placer Argus — Weekly, 1872. Later consolidated with 
Placer County Republican. 

Placer Democratic Weekly — First issue April 1854. 
Lynch and Sherman, owners. Philip Lynch was the first 



editor and was succeeded in July 1854 by L. P. Hall, 
whose nickname was "Long Primer," throughout Cali- 
fornia. John Shannon succeeded Hall as editor and he 
afterwards established the Visalia Delta and became co- 
publisher of the Calaveras Chronicle. Lynch became edi- 
tor of the Placer Courier. The Placer Democratic Weekly 
championed the cause of David C. Broderick during the 
bitter political campaign of 1 854. When Broderick was de- 
feated the paper had no reason to continue, and ceased 
publication saying "it would not pay." It was succeeded by 
the Auburn Whig and that, in turn, by the Placer Press. 
Placer Herald — Weekly, 1852. First issue September 
11, 1852. Publishers, Tabb Mitchell, Richard Rust and 
John McElroy. Size of paper 14"x20", 20 columns. Is- 
sued on Saturdays. The opening editorial proclaimed the 
paper "free and independent," but it soon took on a strong 
Democratic flavor and wielded considerable power in that 
party. In the fall of 1852, Tabb Mitchell bought out his 
partners and in December of 1852 Charles Mitchell took 
over an interest, with Tabb remaining as editor. Septem- 
ber 1853, Charles retired and the paper was enlarged to 
6 columns to a page, 22" in length. In January 1856 James 
Anderson purchased a one-third interest and became edi- 
tor j but in April 1857 Charles Mitchell once more be- 
came actively interested, taking over Anderson's share. 
In 1859 the Herald engaged in a lively political contro- 



versy with the Republicans ; but after Lincoln's assassina- 
tion it eased its attitude and carried the sombre black 
border of national mourning. William H. Smith leased 
it in 1867 and Lieutenant Governor Joseph Walkup be- 
came its editor. In 1868 Walkup took over under the name 
of Walkup and Company with Robert Hartley and Wil- 
liam Smith as his partners. 1872, James A. Filcher be- 
came a partner with Walkup, still editor, a post he held 
until his death in the Herald office, October 15, 1873. 
This left Filcher in control. There were a number of 
lessees following, among them W. A. Shepard who went 
to work on the paper in 1889 and purchased it from 
Filcher in 1900. 

Placer Press — (succeeded by Whig) June 1855-1858. 
South and Company, publishers ; T. W. Scobey, editor. 
Supported the cause of the Know-Nothing, or American 
Party. Hiram R. Hawkins, A. L. Stimson, Charles Wink- 
ley became owners with Hawkins editor. 

Stars and Stripes — Weekly, 1863-1872. First issue 
July 29, 1 863. Published by J. C. Boggs, with W. A. Sel- 
kirk as editor. It was the first Republican paper in Placer 
County. Size 14"x20", 24 columns. Three pages of the 
first issue were devoted exclusively to advertising. Pub- 
lished every Wednesday. During the years of its life it 
had many changes of editors and publishers. Selkirk re- 
tired as editor in February 1864, and returned in August 



of 1865, only to withdraw again, the following Novem- 
ber. Boggs retired in 1866 and Ed. C. Littlefield became 
editor. In 1 867 Selkirk returned to buy out Boggs' interest 
and assume editorship. Hart Fellows bought out Selkirk 
in 1867, becoming editor. Fellows was owner and editor 
in 1869. In 1872 the paper backed Horace Greeley j and 
it ceased publication November 28, 1872. 

States Rights Journal — See Democratic Signal. 

Union Advocate — 1861-1863? James P. Bull, mana- 
ger j Hiram Hawkins, editor. 

Whig— First issue October 21, 1854. C. Walkley, A. 
D. Stimson, owners j M. E. Mills, editor. This paper 
had 31 issues with Mills as editor for the first three 
months. Hawkins succeeded him and served until the final 
issue May 19, 1855. 

Benton: Mono County. 

Bentonian — Semi-weekly, tri-weekly, weekly, 1 879- 

Mono Weekly Messenger — February- April 1879. 

Bidwell's Bar: Butte County. 

Weekly Butte Record — November 12, 1855-June 
1856. George H. Crosette, editor. Moved to Oroville, 
June 28, 1856. 



Big Tree Grove: Calaveras County. 

Big Tree Bulletin and Murphy's Advertiser — Pub- 
lished semi-weekly, April- July 1858. First issue April 30, 
1858, last issue July 3, 1858, sixteen issues in all. The 
final issue was published at Murphy's. J. Heckendorn was 
the editor and publisher. The press was set up in the open 
air on the stump of the giant Sequoia. Its motto was "In- 
dependent in all things, neutral in none." The editorial of 
the first issue said: "To-day for the first time in the period 
of the world's history we issue a paper, the office of which 
is established upon a stump. It will be the object of our 
little sheet to give detailed accounts of the country . . ." 
Owing to falling off of patronage in the Mammoth Tree 
Grove the paper did not prosper, and on Saturday, July 3, 
1858 the final edition was put out from Murphy's, the 
editor announcing that he was going to the mines if the 
local people would not support his publication. Since there 
were no more issues, J. Heckendorn must have carried out 
his threat. 

Bodie: Mono County. 

Chronicle — Weekly and daily, 1863-1880. Also known 
as Alpine Chronicle, published in Markleeville, Alpine 
County. United with Bridgeport Union to become Bridge- 
port Chronicle-Union, and published in Bridgeport Dec. 
1878. Still published. 



Free Press— Weekly, daily, 1879-1885. First distrib- 
uted as a throw-away advertising paper. 

Morning News — Daily, March 1879-June 20, 1880. 
United with Bodie Standard to become Bo die Standard- 

Bridgeport: Mono County. 

Chronicle-Union — See Bodie Chronicle. 

Coloma: El Dorado County. 

El Dorado News — July 19-Dec. 6, 1851. Moved to 
Placerville and discontinued in 1 853. T. A. Springer and 
F. H. Harman, publishers and editors. A Whig paper. 

Empre County Argus — 1853-1857. John Conness and 
T. M. Reed, owners j N. W. Fuller, editor. Printed in 
Coloma on presses purchased from the Miner's Advocate 
of Diamond Springs. It was Democratic in political view, 
favoring Senator David C. Broderick. D. P. Tallmage 
succeeded N. W. Fuller as editor. He held this post until 
the end of 1855 when W. J. Forbes and C. Woods took 
the paper over. They continued to publish until they 
failed, the last issue being November 1856. This left 
Coloma without a newspaper. The citizens took up a col- 
lection and made good the paper's debts and publication 
was resumed until July 23, 1857, when H. S. Smith and 
Company purchased it and moved it to Placerville where 



it appeared August 13, 1857 as the Tri-Weekly Argus. 
This in turn was succeeded by the Tri-Weekly Index, 
Lanyard and Phelps publishers, Tri-Weekly Register, 
Semi-Weekly Register, Semi-Weekly Observer. The lat- 
ter discontinued in February, 1860. 

Miner's Advocate — 1852. Also published in Diamond 
Springs. First issue in the summer of 1852. Edited by S. 
Garfield and D. W. Gelwicks. James R. Pile and Com- 
pany were the owners. In 1853 the paper and its presses 
were purchased by John Conness and T. M. Reed who, in 
the summer of 1853, began the publishing of the Empire 
County Argus. 

True Republican — First issue October, 1857. Whee- 
lock, Kies and Cole were owners and editors. The firm 
dissolved in 1858 and the paper was taken over by 
George O. Kies. 

Columbia: Tuolumne County. 

Columbian Citizen — Weekly, 1867. Published by W. 
G. Dinsmore. 

Columbia Clipper — Weekly. May 1854--May 1857. 
Heckendorn, Gist and Wilson, owners. J. Heckendorn, 
editor. An organ of the Know-Nothing Party. See Colum- 
bia Gazette. 

Columbia Gazette — Weekly, semi-weekly, November 
1852-1858. Colonel T. A. Falconer, founder and editor. 



This was the second paper published in Columbia. It was 
independent in politics for a short time and then swung to 
the Democratic standard. In 1853, Col. Falconer retired 
and J. C. and W. A. Duchow became the editors, joined 
by P. M. Lancey. In 1854 the paper was issued as the 
differ and Gazette. Lancey remained until November 
1855 when the paper was merged with the Southern 
Mines Advertiser , a semi-weekly publication edited by T. 
N. Cazneau and J. C. Duchow until July 1856, at which 
time Duchow leased the paper for six months. In the win- 
ter and spring of 1858, J. W. Oliver was editor and the 
paper was anti-administration in sentiment. It was the first 
of the Columbia papers to swing to the support of Doug- 
las. Oliver was succeeded as editor by G. R. Parburt, and 
within a few weeks of his association with it, the paper died 
a natural death. 

Columbia News — August, 1858. Edited by D. 

Columbia Star — Weekly, October 28, 1 8 5 1 -November 
1, 1851. The first paper published in Columbia. It was 
printed on the old Ramage press from the Sonora Herald, 
which had been purchased by G. W. Gore, publisher and 
editor of the Star. It is said that the first issue off the press 
was purchased by a Mrs. deNoielle, first woman resident 
of Columbia, who had crossed the plains. She paid an 
ounce of gold dust for the paper. It is possible that James 



Coffroth worked on this newspaper for a short time after 
leaving the Sonora Herald. Gore got into financial trouble 
and Lewis Gunn sued him for the balance due on the 
Ramage. In order to satisfy the debt the press was sold at 
auction, Gunn bidding it in. It was placed in the street in 
front of the Star office awaiting transportation to Sonora. 
The night of November 13, 1851, the press was set on 
fire, presumably by the disgruntled Gore and his associates. 

Columbia Times — Weekly, 1860-61. 

Columbian Weekly — June 1856-May, 1857. First is- 
sue June 21, 1856. Edited by J. M. Oliver, with a circu- 
lation of over one thousand, which was the largest distri- 
bution of any newspaper in the southern mines. 

Tuolumne Courier — Issued from the office of the Co- 
lumbian Weekly. First issued June 20, 1856. Editors and 
publishers, William A. and J. C. Duchow and J. B. Urmy. 
Purchased Feb. 18, 1864 by George Sharrats and moved 
to Sonora. Suspended publication July 16, 1866. 

Copper City: Shasta County. 

Pioneer — Weekly, published April 1 864-May 1 866, by 
W. L. Carter. Suspended publication, 1866. 

Copperopolis: Calaveras County. 

Courier — April 1865-1867? Published by Ransom and 



Darwin: Inyo County. 

Coso Mining News— Weekly, 1875-1878. T. S. Har- 
ris, editor. When Harris moved from Panamint to Dar- 
win it took almost a week to transport his printing office 
over the rugged roads. First issue of the Coso Mining 
News Nov. 6, 1875. Last issue Sept. 4, 1878. The 
materials of the paper were sent to Bodie where it was 
merged with the Standard. In the 1880s Harris started a 
newspaper in Santa Ana and later he went to Lancaster, 
where he began the Lancaster Weekly News. In the first 
month of 1884 he became involved in a quarrel with the 
editor of the Evening Republican of Los Angeles, and 
this ended in the shooting, by Harris, of the editor, 
Charles Whitehead. A prison sentence followed for 
Harris, and he finally committed suicide in November of 

Diamond Springs: El Dorado County. 

El Dorado County Journal — Weekly, Jan. 1-29, 1856. 

Miner's Advocate — Also published in Coloma. First 
issue in summer of 1852, in Coloma. When the paper's 
press was purchased by John Conness and T. M. Reed in 
the summer of 1853, it was used to print the Empire 
County Argus. The paper removed to Coloma, where 
Fred A. Snyder was editor, until July 23, 1854. Snyder 
came across the plains to California in 1 849, and was a 



member of the California Legislature in the session of 
1 852-1 853. During a visit to Lake Bigler (Tahoe) in July 
of 1854 he was drowned. The following year the paper 
was purchased by Doctor Bradley of Placerville, who 
moved it and changed the name to the El Dorado County 

Douglas City (Trinity Ranch): Trinity County. 
Trinity Gazette— -Weekly, 1861-1862. 

Downieville: Sierra County. 

Bugle — Published in the fall of 1852 and printed on 
the Echo press by W. S. Spear, editor. It was a Whig paper 
and was published only during the political campaign of 

Democrat — Weekly, May 1870-May 1871. 

Mountain Echo — 1851-1854. Became the Sierra Citi- 
zen in 1 854. W. T. Giles was editor and owner. The paper 
first published in the spring of 1851 was the first news- 
paper in Downieville. The press had to be brought into 
the town on skids. It was Democratic in sentiment. In 1 852 
it was taken over by King, Wright and Ham. During the 
winter of 1852-53 a severe storm caused a paper shortage 
and it became necessary to print the news on wrapping 
paper. In the spring of 1 853 both political views and own- 
ership changed. Oscar Bull became editor, and in the 



summer of 1854, the name was changed to the Sierra 

Mountain Messenger — Published in Downieville 
1853-1854. See Gibsonville Herald and La Porte Cali- 
fornia Mountain Messenger. 

Old Oaken Bucket — A weekly temperance paper from 
July 4, 1855 to the fall of the same year. George E. Tal- 
madge and Calvin B. McDonald, publishers. 

Sierra Advocate — Weekly, June 1866-August 1867. 
Published in 1867 by J. H. Dormer. 

Sierra County News — Weekly, March to September 

Sierra Democrat — Weekly, June 1856-1864. See 
Georgetown Weekly News. Published first in Forest City, 
eight miles from Downieville. It was moved to Downie- 
ville within a year of the first issue. While in Forest City 
the owner was John Piatt and the editor W. Campbell. 
When the paper moved it retained the same owner, and 
W. J. Forbes was the editor and part owner. January 1, 
1858, the plant was destroyed by fire, and in order not to 
lose their subscribers the paper was kept alive by printing 
advertising slips on the press of the Mountain Messenger. 
A new press was purchased in Sacamento and heavy snows 
raised the transportation charges to $400. In 1863 John 
B. Reed became associated with the Democrat; but the 



plant burned again in February, 1864 and the salvaged 
materials were purchased by Dewey and Vaughan. 

Standard — Semi-weekly, 1863-1864. Matt Lynch, 
publisher. Formerly known as Weekly Standard of 
Quincy. Moved to Downieville April 6, 1864. Ceased 
publication in October, 1 864. 

Dutch Flat: Placer County. 

Enquirer — Weekly, semi-weekly, 1860-1868. E. B. 
Boust, publisher. The paper was started after Boust left 
the Iowa Hill Patriot. It proved a flourishing sheet for a 
number of years. When the Central Pacific by-passed 
Dutch Flat, it ceased publication. 

Forum — October, 1875. Changed name to Placer 
Times, which was a weekly, 1881. 

Folsom (also known as Negro Bar) : Sacramento County. 

Granite Journal — March 8, 1856. Printed on the press 
used by the Diamond Springs Advocate. First published 
and edited by L. Bradley and S. Seabough. Sold to George 
H. Baker. See Granite, Sacramento County. 

Folsom Dispatch — 1856-1858. Weekly. Carpenter and 
Wellington, publishers; W. Ewing, editor. 1858, W. 
Penry and Co., publishers. 

Folsom Telegraph — Weekly, 1856-r 



Forest City: Sierra County. 

Sierra Democrat — See Downieville Sierra Democrat. 
and Georgetown Weekly News. 

Sierra Free Press — August 6-Dec. 1880. 

Forest Hill: Placer County. 

Courier — See Yankee Jim's Placerville Courier. 

Fort Jones: Siskiyou County. 

Scott Valley News — Semi-weekly, 1878-? Published by 
B. H. Evans. In 1 879 Evans sold to Norcross and Curtis. 
In 1 880 E. S. Culver became associated with it and it was 
independent in politics, and filled with local news. 

Scott Valley Mirror — 1860. Dr. D. M. Davidson 
started this paper on an old hand press brought from 
Yreka's Mountain Herald, in 1860. The publication 
lasted a year and was then purchased by Dumont and 
Fowler and taken to Yreka where it became the National 
Democrat, supporting Breckenridge in opposition to 

Georgetown: El Dorado County. 

Gazette— Founded April 9„ 1880 by Horace W. Hul- 
bert and inherited by his daughter, Maud, who became 
editor at sixteen years of age and who carried on the paper 
for a generation. 


















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'— - 











— — 











Gem — First issue April 12, 1 872. Owned and edited by 
E. L. Crawford: Ceased April 6, 1877. 

Weekly News — October 18, 1854-May 22, 1856. 
Merged with Forest City Sierra Democrat in 1856. J. W. 
Oliver, first editor and publisher ; Feb. 1855, Theo. Piatt, 
Jr., owner, Oliver, editor ; May 1855, J. G. McCallum 
became editor and partner; Nov. 1855, Piatt and Shaw, 

Gibsonville: Sierra County. 

Herald — 1 853-1 855. See La Porte Mountain Messen- 
ger. First editor and owner a Mr. Heade, who was suc- 
ceeded in 1 854 by Alfred Helm, who issued a supplement 
called the St. Louis News y which was delivered in St. 
Louis, Missouri, by special messenger. In 1855 the paper 
was sold and taken to La Porte to become the Mountain 
Messenger. Early issues were destroyed by fire. 

Trumpet — 1854-1855, Helm and Myers, publishers. 
See Mountain Messenger. 

Granite: Sacramento County. 

Granite Journal — 1856. Published every Wednesday 
by George H. Baker, who had been associated with the 
Spirit of the Age, in Sacramento. In December 1855 he 
turned his attention to the Granite Journal after disposing 
of his Sacramento interests. The paper only lasted a year. 



Baker was better known as a lithographer than as a journa- 
list. His "Birdseye View of Sacramento,- City of the 
Plains," designed and published in 1857, is one of his 
most valuable productions. 

Grass Valley: Nevada County. 

Daily National Gazette — See Grass Valley Nevada 
National Weekly. 

Foothill Weekly — From January 1 874-? Titles varied: 
Tidings } Telegraph. 

Mining Journal — July 1865-? 

Nevada National Weekly — 1855-1872. Edited by 
Rufus Shoemaker from 1855-1859. From September to 
November 26, 1859, edited by J. H. Boardman. 1860, 
C. S. Wells and Company, owners; C. F. Smith, editor. 
Warren B. Ewer became editor in 1861, succeeding Smith. 
Under Ewer it became a tri-weekly publication. In 1862 
the paper again changed hands, with W. S. Byrne and J. 
P. Skelton buying an interest, and Byrne assuming the 
editorship. June 11, 1862 the plant was destroyed by fire 
and publication was not resumed until July 19. In 1863 
Ewer sold his interest to Wells, and John Rollin Ridge 
bought a quarter interest and became co-editor with Byrne. 
August 1 864, the paper made its appearance as a daily, the 
first in Grass Valley. In April 1865, Wells bought out 
Byrne and the firm was known as the National Printing 



Company with Wells, Ridge and Skelton as owners ; 
Ridge as editor. Ridge died in 1867 and the paper ceased 
publication in 1872. 

Republican— Daily, Nov. 9, 1871 -April 9, 1872. D. B. 
Frink, publisher and owner. Removed to Truckee where 
it became the Truckee Republican. 

Telegraph — First issue September 1853. Oliver and 
Moore, proprietors. In May 1854 Warren B. Ewer and 
J. H. Boardman took over, with H. J. Shipley as editor. 
The latter was a brilliant editor, but he ran into the tem- 
perament of the notorious Lola Montez, and because of 
fancied insults she gave him a public whipping that ended 
his editorial career in Grass Valley. He left, and after 
spending some time in Nevada City and Sacramento he 
died in the latter city by his own hand. In 1 854 the paper 
office burned and again, in July 1855 of that year, it was 
taken over by Rufus Shoemaker and George D. Roberts, 
and the name was changed to the Nevada National 
Weekly, published in Grass Valley, but distributed from 
Nevada City. 

Union — Began publication October 1864, supporting 
the re-election of President Lincoln and opposing the 
stand of John Rollin Ridge, editor of the Nevada 
National. The men behind the financing of the Union were 
not known, and the only name openly associated with its 
editorial staff was that of James W. E. Townsend, a 



wandering editor who served a journalistic career in Vir- 
ginia City, Bodie, and other far flung mining towns. He 
was known as "Lyin' Jim" and during his career on the 
Union he is said to have taken the paper forms to the 
National office in the dead of night, and almost caused the 
Union's death. Someone was in on the plot, and the forms 
were retrieved and the paper was issued on time, but 
Townsend was forced to leave the vicinity. H. C. Bennett 
became editor, and Ridge of the National once challenged 
the supposed head of the Union ) known as A. Blumenthal, 
to a duel. Blumenthal did not accept the challenge, how- 
ever, and soon after Ridge left for San Francisco. In spite 
of it vicissitudes the paper survived and is still published 
in Grass Valley. After Ridge's retirement W. S. Byrne left 
the National to join the Union and Charles Mitchell came 
from Auburn and acquired an interest, and then became 
its sole owner for twenty-seven years. 

Greenville: Plumas County. 

Bulletin— September 1880. Edited by E. Weed. 

Havilah : Kern County. 

Courier— Weekly, 1866-1869? 
Havilah Miner — 1872-1874. 



Hornitos: Mariposa County. 

Mariposa Democrat — Weekly, June 1856-1857. Pub- 
lished in Mariposa. 

Horsetown: Shasta County. 

Northern Argus — 1857-1868. Published by James 
Hart in 1865. 

Independence: Inyo County. 

Inyo Independent — July 1870. First paper in the 
Owens Valley. P. A. Chalfant, James E. Parker, editors. 
First printed on the old Ames press. Still published. P. A. 
Chalfant left the Independent to start the Inyo Register 
in Bishop in 1885. 

Inyo Lancet — 1871. Edited by Goodale, Hill and Co. 
Printed in the office of the Inyo Independent > but a politi- 
cal rival. 

Ione: Amador County. 

Amador Times — See Ione News. 

Chronicle — Weekly, 1861, for a few months. Pub- 
lished by Folger and Company. When Folger moved to 
Alpine County it is possible that he took the paper along 
and merged it with the Alpine Chronicle, published in 

Ione News — Established by Haley and Company in 



1877. It ceased publication in November 1880 because of 
lack of financial support. 

Iowa Hill: Placer County. 

Iowa Hill News — Weekly, September 1 855-November 
1857. Followed by North San Juan Star and Hydraulic 
Press. First issue in Iowa Hill in September 15, 1855. 
J. P. Olmstead and Miller, publishers. Its main editorial 
objective was the division of Placer County, in which cam- 
paign it failed. The paper was moved to North San Juan 
in November 1857, with Olmstead still publisher and 
Thomas Waters as partner. The name was changed to the 
North San Juan Star. When it was sold to Benjamin P. 
Avery tht name was again changed to Hydraulic Press. 
Another change in ownership, to William Baumann, also 
changed the name, to San Juan Press. 

Patriot— Weekly, 1859. Established by E. B. Boust of 
the Placer Courier , to replace the News that had been re- 
moved to North San Juan. In spite of a hard struggle to 
survive, Boust continued the paper until May 1, 1860, 
when he too moved on, this time to Dutch Flat, where he 
started the Enquirer. 

Jackson: Amador County. 

Amador Dispatch— Weekly, 1858-1880. Published by 
J. Heckendorn and George Payne. It was first put out at 



Lancha Plana (Flat Boat), so-called because of the flat 
boat ferries which carried gold seekers across the river to 
the mines. The paper was first printed on an old roller 
press during the boom days of Lancha Plana ; and then 
was purchased by a man named Mullen, who moved it to 
Jackson, where it was a Democratic sheet. In 1860 it was 
sold to George Payne and William Penry, who turned it 
into an anti-administration paper and it wielded consider- 
able political power. When Lincoln was assassinated the 
paper was suppressed and its publishers, Penry and Payne, 
were taken to Alcatraz Island where they were incarcer- 
ated because of their political leanings. After a month on 
the Island they were released and returned to Jackson 
where they reopened the Dispatch office and began to pub- 
lish, with the same political policies as before. However, 
public opinion had calmed down and their views were no 
longer considered a matter for drastic action. L. P. Hall, 
"Long Primer," who had been associated with the Auburn 
Democratic Weekly , also had an interest in the Dispatch. 
It is told that he could stand up to a case and set an edi- 
torial without a manuscript, a feat few editors were able 
to perform. 

While the publishers of the Dispatch were on Alcatraz 
Island, R. M. Briggs took over the newspaper office to 



print the Union Record. His editorials were widely read 
in the East. When the Dispatch was revived the Union 
Record ceased. 

Amador Ledger & Record — 1855-1 875-? First issue 
October 27, 1855. Published first in Volcano as Weekly 
Ledger until 1857, when it became Amador Weekly 
Ledger. 1865, published by T. A. Springer. It was Demo- 
cratic until the Civil War, when it became Union-Demo- 
crat. Springer was a fine printer and later took the job as 
State Printer for California, at which time Grant Springer 
took over management of the Ledger, with R. M. Briggs 
and J. A. Eagon handling the editorial policies. In 1875 
it was under the management of Richard Webb. 

Amador Sentinel — 1854-1862. First published by 
Charles Boynton of the Owl, Mokelumne Hill. He car- 
ried the issues to Jackson under his arm and distributed 
them in person, until he secured his own press in Jackson. 
He sold out to O. D. Avaline in 1857. The paper was pub- 
lished until 1862, when Avaline shut down the press to 
join the Union Army. 

Bell — August-September, 1855. A humorous sheet that 
ran for only two issues. Printed on Sentinel press. 

Democratic Standard — Campaign paper of 1856. 
Edited and published by Homer King. Issued for only 
three months from the Sentinel press. 

Independent — August-September 1858. Another poli- 



tical campaign paper edited by J. H. Dennis in behalf of 
the Independent ticket. 

Owl — 1853-1854. A humorous paper published by 
Charles Boynton, the father of newspapers in Amador 
County. He ran off several issues of this paper from the 
type of the Chronicle^ Mokelumne Hill, with which he 
was associated. It is said that he frequently swam the river 
with the edition strapped to his head, and that he never 
went to Mokelumne Hill without having a fight over his 

Prospector — May 1854. Printed by M. B. Clark, A. 
Badlam, and W. J. Wallace, who were officers of the Ditch 
Company, and who turned newspaper publishers to kill 
time. It ran a year and paid its way through advertising. 

Sentinel — Second paper of the name. Started in June 
1 879, by Turner, McNeil and Briggs. Republican in poli- 
tics and still being published in 1880 by Turner and 

Student's Banner — March 30, 1858. One issue, put out 
by G. O. Ash and N. C. Briggs to aid a school exhibition 
in Jackson. 

Union Record — See Amador Dispatch. 

Knight's Ferry: Stanislaus County. 

Bee (sometimes called Ferry Bee) — 1 859. Published by 
W. J. Collier. The paper's makeup was four pages, six 



columns to a page, and sold for 25c per copy. J. B. Ken- 
nedy succeeded Collier after a few issues. The life of the 
paper was only fourteen months j when it was succeeded 
by the Stanislaus Index. 

Stanislaus Index — 1861-1862. Harrison and Whicher, 
publishers. Suspended publication in 1862. 

La Porte (Rabbit Creek): Plumas County. 

Mountain Messenger — 1 855. First issue was in the fall 
of 1855. A. T. Dewey, publisher. In 1859 W. S. Byrne 
was associated with Dewey. Destroyed by fire in 1861, 
and in 1862 Dewey bought out Byrne's interest, and the 
following year J. A. Vaughn became a partner. In 1864 
Dewey's relative, E. M. Dewey, purchased an interest. 
From February 1 864 the paper was published in Downie- 
ville by Dewey and Vaughan. In 1868 E. M. Dewey sold 
his interest to E. K. Downer and D. Whitney, but Whit- 
ney soon dropped out and the publishers were Downer 
and Vaughan. See Gibsonville Herald. 

Lundy: Mono County. 

Homer Mining Index — Weekly, 18 80-? Considered 
the best newspaper printed in Mono County, and an ex- 
cellent source of information on early mining camps of 
the vicinity. J. W. E. Townsend, editor. Known as "Lyin' 



Jim Townsend." Said to have been the original of "Truth- 
ful James" of Bret Harte. 

Mammoth City: Mono County. 

Mammoth City Herald — Semi-weekly, weekly, 1879- 
1880? The first paper published in Mammoth City. W. 
W. Barnes, first publisher, editor, distributor. R. D. 
Bogart, partner, July to September, 1879. 

Mammoth City Times — Weekly, semi-weekly. 1879- 
1880? Also known as Lake Mining Review y a. rival of the 
Herald. John Gilson, publisher; R. D. Bogart, editor. 

Mariposa: Mariposa County. 

Chronicle {Gazette) — January 20, 1854-March 1855. 
Owned by W. T. Whitacre and A. S. Gould. Ownership 
changed the first year to John C. Hopper and C. W. Blais- 
dell. Purchased in 1855 by L. A. Holmes and the name 
changed to Gazette, with the first issue under the new 
masthead March 12, 1855. It never missed an issue. The 
press upon which it was printed was a Washington hand 
press brought around the Horn to San Francisco and then 
shipped to Mariposa by Wells Fargo Express. Type was 
hand set and the subscription price was $5.00 per year. It 
was a weekly of four pages, giving news in a non-partisan 
manner. The first description of the Yosemite Valley was 
printed July 12, 1855 in the Gazette , following the trip 



of J. M. Hutchings into the valley. In 1867 the paper was 
published by A. M. Sweeney. It is one of the oldest of the 
continuously published newspapers in California. Still 

Democrat — Published in Hornitos, June 1856-1858. 
D. B. Milne and Warren Bear were the original owners. 
M. Godfrey was the publisher after it moved to Mariposa. 

Free Press — 1863-1866. J. H. Laurence, publisher in 

Gazette — See Chronicle. 

Mail — 1866-1869. Angevine Reynolds, publisher. He 
arrived in California in 1849 and settled on Mariposa 

Star — June 1858. J. W. Ross and James Laurence, 
editors. A Democratic paper. 

Markleeville: Alpine County. 

Alpine Chronicle — See Bodie Chronicle, 1865-1867. 
Published by Robert Folger. 

Alpine Signal— Weekly, July 1878-1879. 

Meadow Lake: Nevada County. 

Sun — 1866 for a few months. Published by W. Lyon. 
H. G. Rollin and Judge F. Tilford. 

Millerton: Fresno County. 

Expositor — 1 870-1 874-. Became Fresno Expositor. 



Mokelumne Hill: Calaveras County. 

Calaveras Chronicle — Weekly. First issue October 9, 
1851. This was the second paper published in the southern 
mines. Owned by H. Hamilton, J. J. Ayres and H. A. 
DeCourcey, the latter being editor from 1851-1852. He 
came from the Nevada Journal. In 1 852 he fought a duel 
with a man namel Carter, and survived his wounds. From 
1852 to 1854 Hamilton conducted the paper, and then it 
was taken over by George Shuler, who ran it until 1857. 
with J. M. Bengay and J. O'Meara as editors. In 1857 
John Shannon became owner and editor. When James 
O'Meara left the Calaveras Chronicle he hied himself to 
San Francisco where he became prominent because of his 
writings on the Broderick-Terry duel and the Second 
Vigilance Committee. The Chronicle office was destroyed 
by fire during its career in the early 1 850s, but this did not 
deter its progress. It was the only newspaper printed in 
English in Mokelumne Hill. 

Quampeag Coyote — May 1855. A humorous sheet 
edited under the pseudonyms of Parthenon, Slimface and 
Peter Noodles. 

Monitor: Alpine County. 

Alpine Miner — June 1 8 64 -September 1874. S. G. 
Lewis, publisher. 

Gazette — 1865. Published by Noble and Company. 



Murphy's: Calaveras County. 

News — Semi-weekly, weekly, 1856. First issue July 21, 
1856. Edited by D. Youcham and J. Palache. Lasted but 
one month. 

Nevada City: Nevada County. 

Coyote — 1 854-. Issued from the office of the Journal by 
W. A. Potter. One issue only. 

Daily Gazette— \ 864-1 874-. O. P. Stidger and Com- 
pany, publishers j O. P. Stidger, editor. Material from the 
San Juan Press. In 1 872 the material of the Grass Valley 
National was added. Ceased publication in 1874. Others 
who edited the paper were William Sear, E. F. Bean and 
A. Morse. 

Daily Transcript — 1860-r First daily paper in Nevada 
County. First issued September 6, 1860. N. P. Brown, 
James Allen, John P. Skelton, and A. Casamayou. Allen 
held the editorial post. In 1861 N. P. Brown was editor 
and owner. In 1 862 E. G. Waite purchased an interest and 
became the editor. In 1877 N. P. Brown and G. A. Baily 
were the owners, with Brown as editor. Leonard S. Cal- 
kins became associated with Brown in 1878 and was the 
editor. Under Calkins the paper appeared as a daily except 
Monday, and was a reliable source of news on the mines. 
It was widely read in the east. 

r 50 1 


Nevada Democrat — 1 854-1 863. Niles Searls and T. J. 
Rolfe, first publishers. Tallman Rolfe resumed the edi- 
torship in 1 863 shortly before the paper ceased publication. 
(See Young America.} 

Nevada Journal — 1 851-1 863. First issue in April 1851. 
Published as the second paper in a California mining town, 
and the first in the northern mines. Warren B. Ewer was 
the first editor and publisher. It was next run by Alban 
and DeCourcey, with the latter as the editor. In 1852, A. 
A. Sargent was editor, followed by the firm of Sargent and 
E. R. Budd. In 1854- Budd assumed control. The next 
year N. P. Brown and Company were publishers, with 
Sargent as editor. He retired in 1855 and the firm became 
E. G. Waite, N. P. Brown, John Skelton, H. M. Fuller 
Company, publishers, with Waite as editor. The firm re- 
mained the same until 1856 when Fuller and Skelton 
retired and Sargent again became editor for about three 
months. At this time the newspaper office was destroyed 
by fire. From then until 1858 the firm was Brown and 
Waite, then it became Lockwood, Thompson and Waite, 
with Waite as editor. When Waite retired the editor's 
chair was filled by the Reverend B. Birely. Of these men 
Ewer was the scholarly journalist who assumed the editor- 
ship of the Mining and Scientific Press. A. A. Sargent be- 



came Senator, and later Minister to Germany. The paper 
was politically Whig in sentiment to July 1855, when it 
advocated the principles of the American Party. In 1857- 
1858 it was a supporter of Douglas. 

Miner's Spectacles — Also known as Muggins Mirror. 
A humorous sheet published in the winter of 1855. It was 
put out on the press of the Journal by John Patterson, N. 
P. Brown and John Skelton. It was short lived. 

Miner's Spy Glass — Winter of 1855. Edited by John 
S. Foster from the Democrat. A temperance paper that 
ran for only two issues. 

Tri-Weekly Herald— 1 878-? Publishers were J. B. 
Gray, E. A. Davis, H. L. Herzinger. Later it was edited 
by R. E. Robinson and D. Delim. The paper was devoted 
to mining news of Nevada County. 

Young America — 1 853-1 863. First issue September 14, 
1 853. R. A. Davidge was the editor. In 1 854 Warren B. 
Ewer became the editor, with Niles Searls, J. H. Board- 
man and Russell as publishers. The name was changed to 
the Nevada Democrat. 

North San Juan: Nevada County. 

Hydraulic Press — (See Iowa Hill News y North San 
Juan Star, San Juan Press.) 1858-1860. Benjamin P. 
Avery bought out the North San Juan Star and changed 
the name to the Hydraulic Press. 





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San Juan Press, showing O. P. Stidgcr as editor and publisher. 



Independent— Weekly, April 1878-April 1880. A. O. 
Porter, J. R. Robinson, publishers. A paper devoted ex- 
clusively to home interests. 

North San Juan Press — The property of the Hydraulic 
Press. The paper was purchased by O. P. Stidger, who con- 
tinued the publication under the same name until March 
of 1 864, when it was moved to Nevada City and became 
the Nevada City Daily Gazette. 

North San Juan Star— 1857-1858. Edited by J. P. 
Olmstead and Thomas Waters. Sold in 1858 to become 
the Hydraulic Press. 

North San Juan Times — Weekly, 1873-1878. 

War Club — Semi- weekly, 1872. 

Oroville: Butte County. 

Butte Democrat — August 1857-? 

Butte Record — See BidwelPs Bar Weekly Butte 

Mercury — 1877. Name changed to Daily Mercury in 

North Calif ornian — November 1855-April 1857. Fol- 
lowed in 1858 by the Morning Advertiser. Published by 
C. G. Lincoln and Company. 

Register*- Weekly, 1877. Published by Biggs in 1879. 



Weekly Union— 1862-1864. Merged with Weekly 
Butte Record as Oroville Union Record. Published by S. 
G. Lewis in 1 867. Later Chico Record. 

Panamint: Inyo County. 

News — 1874-1875. Published tri- weekly by Panamint 
Publishing Company. T. S. Harris and D. P. Carr, editors. 
Moved to Darwin, 1875. See Coso Mining News. 

Placerville: El Dorado County. 

American — Weekly, July 1 855 - November 1859. 
Edited by Wadsworth and Childs from July 1855 to 
August 1856. Then Harvey and Childs, to November 
1857. Then Barstow Park, with Cole and Dietz, editors. 
Failed in 1859. 

Appeal — March to May 1853. A Democratic paper 
published by W. S. Fleming and Company. 

Argus — Tri-weekly, 1857-February 1860. Set Empire 
County Argus , Coloma. First issue August 13, 1 857; Cap- 
tain Frank Stewart, editor. Succeeded by tri-weekly Regis- 
ter , semi- weekly Register , semi- weekly Observer, Feb- 
ruary 2, 1859, with O. L. C. and J. D. Fairchild as 
publishers and Captain Stewart as editor. Discontinued 
February 4, 1860. 

Central Calif ornian — Semi- weekly, August I860-? 
Hon. J. G. McCallum, publisher. A campaign weekly 



paper for Douglas and Johnson. Richard Cole, editor, fol- 
lowed Jan. 1, 1861, by O. D. Avaline. 

Coloma Times — March 1860-October 1861. George 
O. Kies and S. B. Weller, publishers. Became Placerville 
Times, November 3, 1 861, with Kies as publisher. 

Courier — Weekly, June 1866-1867. Lyers and Yar- 
nell, publishers. 

El Dorado County Journal — Weekly, January 1856. 
See Miner's Advocate of Diamond Springs. 

El Dorado County Union — Weekly, June 28, 1861- 
July 20, 1861. Richard Cole, editor. Ceased publication 
after becoming a daily. 

El Dorado News— December 1851-May 1853. See El 
Dorado News, Coloma. 

El Dorado Republican — Second paper to be issued by 
that name. Published for the political campaign of 1857. 

Herald— April-November, 1853. F. A. Bee and W. 
Wadsworth, publishers. A Democratic campaign paper. 

Mirror— Weekly, 1865-1866. 

Mountain Democrat — Weekly, 1 854-? Appeared first 
on February 25, 1854. Edited by D. W. Gel wicks and 
William January. Published continuously except for a fire 
in 1856. On August 22, 1860 it became the semi-weekly 
Mountain Democrat with George P. Johnson taking the 
place of January, who was elected clerk of El Dorado 
County in 1859. Returned to weekly publication in 1861. 

[57] • 


In January of 1867 George O. Kies and T. J. Caystile 
became owners and editors. December 20, 1872, W. A. 
Selkirk bought a controlling interest with Kies as partner 
until 1874, when Selkirk became sole owner. In 1860 
Selkirk and E. A. Smith j 1881 Selkirk bought out Smith. 
In November 1862 General Wright, commander of the 
Department of the Pacific forbade the sending of the 
paper through the mail or expresses because of its politi- 
cal affiliations. See El Dorado Republican. 

News — Weekly, started by Fumarton and Yarnell. 
Printed on the press of the Union. First issue August 14, 
1861. Probably the same as the Placerville News, pub- 
lished by D. J. and H. A. Yarnell. 

Observer — Semi-weekly. Editors, O. L. C. and J. D. 
Fairchild. First issued on February 2, 1859. Discontinued 
in 1 860. Printed on the Argus press. 

Recorder— 1865-1866. 

Republican — August 7, 1861, first issue. D. deGolia, 
publisher; Bowman, editor j succeeded by Thomas Fitch. 
Discontinued in 1862. Revived in 1863 by B. F. Davis. 
It was still being published in 1880. 

Quincy: Plumas County. 

Fillmore Banner — Campaign paper of 1856. Edited by 
Silas Caulkins and printed on the press of the Old Moun- 



Old Mountaineer — 1 855-July 1857. First newspaper in 
Plumas County. First edition August 1855. Edited and 
published by John K. Love joy and Edward McElwain. 
Sold to John Lewis and James McNabb in 1857. The 
name was then changed to the Plumas Argus. During the 
political campaign of 1856 three columns of the paper 
were edited by Dr. A. Fredonyer, an ardent Republican, 
who carried on a lively editorial debate with the gentle- 
men of the Plumas Democrat and the Fillmore Banner. 

Plumas Argus — July 1857. Taken over by the Old 
Mountaineer. Published until 1860, when it was taken 
over by the sheriff. It was revived the same year and pub- 
lished for four months by John Lewis and Edward 
McElwain. The press was then moved to Carson City, 
Nevada, where the name was changed to the Silver Age. 

Plumas Democrat — Campaign paper of 1 856, edited by 
John S. Ward and E. T. Hogan. This paper was printed 
upon the press of the Old Mountaineer. 

Plumas National — 1866-? Edited by H. L. Gear until 
1 869 when L. C. Charles and William E. Ward took over 
the paper. Charles sold his interest in 1871 to Ward. The 
paper was still published in 1880. 

Plumas Standard— Weekly, 1859-1863. Thomas Bail 
and Lewis Curtz, editors in 1859. Matthew Lynch took 
over in 1860, and three years later moved the paper to 
Downieville. See Downieville Standard. 



Prospector — Edited and published by Alexander Bad- 
lam, who afterwards became the issessor if San Fran: 


Quincy Union — 1 862-1 869. A Union Party- paper pub- 
lished by Leonard and Powers. The Plumas Printing 
Company, with John Buckbee as editor, took over the 
paper in 1864. W. W. Kellogg, who had come to Plumas 
County in 1858, became the editor and publisher soon 
afterward, and he held the post for some eight years. He 
then entered politics and was elected to the State Legisla- 
ture on the Republican ticket. He had, however, gone to 
La Porte in 1868 when the paper was moved there, and in 
1869 the plant was destroyed by fire and suffered such 
losses that publication ceased. 

Andreas: Calaveras County. 

Calaveras A dvertiser— Weekly, 1869-1881. 

Calaveras Citizen — 1 8 7 1 - : C . R. Beal, editor and pub- 
lisher. Name changed to Calaveras Prospect and Citizen. 

Calaveras Times — May-June, 1863. 

Calaveras Union — October 11, 1856 - November 8, 
1857. A. C. Lewis, editor and publisher. A campaign 
paper in 1 864. W. W. Kellogg, who had come to Plumas 
County in 1858, became the editor and publisher soon 
Company, with John Buckbee as editor, took over the 
paper in favor of the American Party. 



Foothi : — Weekly, IS"— ; 

lountair, I lei .— W eekly, -367-1868. J. D. Spencer, 
editor and publisher. 

San A ndreas Independent — 1856-1860. Paper pub- 
lished at Stockton as the Mi ng Independent, B. P. 
Kooser, editor. 

- R*j Ister— Weekly, 1863-1868. Published 
in 1867 by Rans m, Benham and Denig. 

ohasta: canasta Lou::ty. 

Courier — Weekly, : ; /:. Fire: issue March 12. 

Founded by A. Skillman and J. C. Hinckley ; Samuel 
Dosh, editor. The first paper published north of Marys- 
ville. It was begun as an independent in politics, but 
became Democratic in sentiment in 1855. — was :he fate 
of so many newspaper offices it was destroyed by fire in the 
first year of life, and suspended for four months. In June 
1853 it again suffered loss by fire, but this time the press 
was saved and the Courier continued to print, even though 
the Issues sre on half-sheets. In 185S Ski 11 man and 
sh became the sole own. 

Herald — James R. Keene, editor. See Republican, 

A zTu'r'.':;.:- — 0::rber 1A A/AAA. Fav;rei:he 

American Part; J. C. Hinckley, who had been with the 

Courier , a ad Gillette, w e r e Grst : wn e r - a n d editors, until 

May I ; : A I- was then published by J. R. Keene and then 



was taken over by Street and Moffatt. The paper was sup- 
ported by adherents of the LeCompton Policy in regard 
to the Kansas question. It also supported President 
Buchanan. Suspended in 1861, under the name of Shasta 

Vigilante — June 18 56-? G. K. Godfrey, editor. It 
lasted but one month and was printed to support the re- 
forms of the vigilante movement. 

Silver Mountain: Alpine County. 

Alpine Chronicle — See Bo die Chronicle. 

Bulletin— 1865. Published by D. S. Lane, and W. O. 
Hayes, in 1867. 

Silver Mountain Miner — Weekly, April- June 1868. 

Sonora: Tuolumne County. 

American Eagle — Weekly, May-August 1864. George 
L. Sharrats, publisher. 

American Flag — Weekly, 1861-1 864-. First issue on 
November 1, 1861. Strictly a Union paper. H. B. Mc- 
Neil, Oliver Wolcott, Seth Sneden, editors, and D. O. 
McCarthy, a livery stable owner, was the publisher. Dur- 
ing the great storm of 1862 the paper was published on 
half -sheets. Suspended publication in February 1862. A 
charge of murder was brought against the publisher, prob- 
ably by the secessionists, and he was thrown in jail on the 



hope that the paper would cease to publish. During the 
Civil War McCarthy moved the paper to San Francisco. 

Democratic Age — Weekly, 1860. 

Mountain Whig — Weekly for five weeks in summer 
of 1852. The only Whig party paper in the southern 
mines. Published by J. W. Dunn. 

Sonora Herald— -Weekly, 1850-1859. Resumed, 1865- 
1867. The first issue of the Herald was distributed on July 
4, 1850, its editors John White and John G. Marvin. It 
was the first newspaper printed in a California mining 
town. The first issues were printed on 9"xl3" foolscap 
and sold for fifty cent a copy. The twelfth issue saw it en- 
larged to 12"xl7". It was printed on wrapping paper, as 
no newsprint was available. The first printer was Enos 
Christman, who learned his trade in Pennsylvania and 
came to California via the Horn, arriving in San Fran- 
cisco February 12, 1 850. By early summer he had gone to 
Sonora and the following from his diary tells of his print- 
ing the first issue of the Herald: "On Wednesday after- 
noon July 3, after having worked off the first edition of 
the Herald in the Times office at Stockton, the proprietor 
solicited me to take a horse and start immediately for 
Sonora ... in order that the paper might be distributed. 
. . . The day after my arrival I distributed the copies of 
the first number throughout the town." 

The paper was printed on an old Ramage press which 



was brought around the Horn to California in 1834 on 
order of Augustin V. Zamorano, California's first printer. 
The press was built in Philadelphia, and was sold to 
Zamorano from Boston by Thomas Shaw. The price was 
$460 American dollars. The platen and frame of the press 
were of wood. The bed for the forms, of stone, and the 
screw used for the impression, iron. The old Ramage that 
was first used to print manifestos for the Mexican govern- 
ment, went from Monterey to San Francisco, to Sacra- 
mento, back to San Francisco and then to Stockton, where 
it served the first printer in Stockton. It was sold by him 
to Marvin and White of Sonora in the summer of 1850. 
By 1851 the press was too small to print the larger sized 
Herald, and it was sold to Gore of Columbia, publisher 
of the Star. The sticks for composing were those that had 
been whittled by Enos Christman from a pine plank. 

Upon the twelfth issue of the Herald, White trans- 
ferred his interest to J. R. Reynolds, who held it for only 
two weeks and sold to T. Haley, who, in turn sold to Dr. 
Lewis C. Gunn. The 1 5th, 1 6th and 1 7th issues were pub- 
lished under the joint ownership of Marvin and Gunn; 
and the 1 8th issue carried the name of Enos Christman in 
the place of Judge Marvin. To the 40th issue Christman 
was associated with the paper and then Gunn took over 
sole ownership until May 1 852, when Walter Murray and 
James O'Sullivan assumed ownership. February 19, 1853, 



O'Sullivan sold his interest to Murray, who, in turn, sold 
back to Gunn. About this time James Coffroth became an 
employee of the Herald. From April 1854, O'Sullivan 
and Alexander Murray, brother of Walter, became pro- 
prietors and the paper continued to see-saw in ownership 
until 1856. In July that year it became the Daily Sonora 
Herald, and was independent in its political views. This 
newspaper was the first in California to advocate title in 
fee simple for mineral bearing land. 

Tuolumne Courier — 1857-1866. Published in Colum- 

Tuolumne Independent — 1872-1876. John C. and 
William A. Duchow, editors. 

Union Democrat — Weekly, 1854-1856? First issue 
July 1, 1 854. It was the only paper wth Democratic senti- 
ments in Sonora. It was published by A. N. Francisco. In 
1855 the editor was C. Donovan. In 1856 Otis Greenwood 
was editor and Francisco publisher. Prentice Mulford was 
a writer for it in 1871, under the title of "Dogberry." In 
1869 William A. Arthur was editor, but died in October 
of that year. In 1875 W. H. Roberts and E. H. Clugh 
were the owners. 

Sutter Creek: Amador County. 

Foothills Ensign — 1875. Devoted to the advancement 
of the County of Amador. "Fearless and Independent in 



everything, neutral in nothing." It was published every 

Independent — 1873-1874. A daily paper published by 
R. V. Chadd. It was popular for a short time because of 
its devotion to local items. It died, however, from lack of 
subscribers. The materials were purchased by Richard 
Webb of the lone Ledger. 

Tuolumne: Tuolumne County. 

News— Weekly, 1868-1869. First issue February 14, 
1868. J. D. Spencer, editor and publisher. Issued from 
the upper floor of the Ross House every Friday. A Demo- 
cratic organ and responsible for the breaking up of the 
Land Office ring in Stockton. It also advocated the "no 
fence" law. The last issue of the paper in Tuolumne City 
was November 29, 1861. The paper ceased issue when its 
editor and publisher decided that the coming of the rail- 
road had killed the chances of Tuolumne City, and he 
moved to Modesto. 

Volcano: Amador County. 

Ledger — W T eekly, October 27, 1857. Thomas A. 
Springer, E. A. Dangerfield, editors and publishers. 
Moved to Jackson in April 1 858. 



Weaverville: Trinity County. 

Democrat— 1855-1856. Edited by H. J. Howe and J. 

Journal — First issue January 26, 1856. Took over the 
Times. It is now one of the oldest papers in California, 
and has never missed an issue. 

Times — December 1 854-. First published by Rowe and 
Conway. Taken over by Journal. 

Trinity Press— 1870-1871. 

Trinity Journal — See Journal. 

Yankee Jim's: Placer County. 

Mountain Courier — December 1856-March 1857. 
Published during the winter of 1857. Parker and Graves, 
publishers. Office was attached for debt and the paper died. 

Placer Courier — July 4, 1857-1863. First issue July 4, 
1857. E. B. Boust, editor. It used the materials left over 
from the Mountain Courier. The paper was purchased by 
R. J. Steele in November 1858, and moved to Forest Hill 
the following spring. It was published by Steele until De- 
cember 1 860 when it was sold to Philip Lynch, who con- 
tinued it until 1863. 

Yreka: Siskiyou County. 

Chronicle— \ 856-1 859. Started by J. W. A'Neal after 
he withdrew from the Union. His partner was W. P. Fair, 



husband of the notorious Laura Fair who shot A. P. 
Crittenden on a San Francisco bound ferry boat. Prior to 
him his brother, S. P. Fair, was editor, in company with 
Jonas Brown and J. W. A'Neal. W. I. Mayfield and H. 
S. Stipp were the next publishers, followed by J. A. Glass- 
cock and C. N. Thornbury. In 1859 Mayfield took over 
the paper with J. W. Oliver as editor. Ceased publication 
September 1859 

Journal — Semi-weekly, also known as Yreka Journal 
and Northern Journal. It appeared as an Independent 
paper in July 1861, succeeding the Weekly Journal, with 
Robert Nixon as publisher. It was a Republican paper and 
one of the pioneers to sponsor that political party. It be- 
came the leading Northern California publication and 
after the election of 1861 it became a weekly. In 1862- 
1 863 it was a rival of the Union. 

Northern Journal — 1 859-1 860. J. Dumont, publisher j 
James M. Bassett, editor. Taken over by Weekly Journal. 

Weekly Journal — W. I. Mayfield, Joshua Tricle and 
J. R. Murray, publishers. 

Mountain Herald* — 1853-1855. First edition June 11, 
1853. Owners, C. N. Thornbury, W. D. Slade, S. F. Van 
Choate. Published under the name of Thornbury and 
Company. The money for the press was raised by citizens 
of Yreka. An old hand press was brought across the moun- 
tains via mule express at a cost of fifty cents per pound. 



Van Choate soon retired from partnership and a larger 
press was needed as the paper rapidly increased its circu- 
lation. The paper was an independent in politics and pros- 
pered until the American Party became a threat in 1855. 
The paper was then sold to J. Lytle Cummins, who acted 
as the representative of Mr. A'Neal, H. G. Ferris, D. D. 
Colton and J. Tyson. The paper's name was changed to 
the Union. 

Union — Outgrowth of the Mountain Herald. A. 
A'Neal, one of the purchaser owners, severed his connec- 
tion when it became Democratic. He even began a law suit 
to kill the change in politics, but the jury "hung" and he 
never renewed his suit. Under the direction of Tyson and 
Company the paper flourished. The editors were George 
Freaner, J. D. Turner and Calvin McDonald. In 1858 
H. H. Brown and J. Tyson were editors. In 1859 it was 
published as a tri-weekly, with George Price as editor. 
H. K. White and Robert Tilden took over, and were fol- 
lowed by A. J. Starling as publisher in 1860. From 1861- 
1864 White, and later, for short periods, William Page, 
George Hackett and M. D. Houck were associated with 
it. In 1867 it was published by William Irvin, and 1878 
by John Bird. 






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Grass Valley Telegraph, the extra issued after the fire that 
destroyed Grass Valley in September, 1854. 



Foothills Ensign 



Alphabetical List of 
Mining Town Newspapers 

Alpine Chronicle, Markleeville — See Bridgeport Union 
and Bo die Chronicle. 

Alpine Miner, Monitor. 

Alpine Signal, Markleeville. 

Amador Dispatch , Jackson. 

Amador Ledger, Jackson — See Volcano Weekly Ledger, 

American Eagle, Sonora. 

American Flag and Daily American Flag, Sonora, San 

Argus, Tri-Weekly, Placerville — See Empire County 

Auburn Herald, Auburn. 

Bee, Knights Ferry. 

Bell, Jackson. 

Bentonian, Benton. 

Big Tree Bulletin and Murphy* s Advertiser , Calaveras 
Big Tree Grove. 

Bodie Chronicle , Bodie — See Alpine Chronicle, Bridge- 
port Union and Bridgeport Chronicle Union. 

Bugle, Downieville. 



Bulletin, Silver Mountain. 

Butte Democrat, Oroville. 

Butte Record, BidwelPs Bar, Oroville. 

Calaveras Advertiser, San Andreas. 

Calaveras Chronicle, Mokelumne Hill. 

Calaveras Citizen, also Calaveras Prospect and Citizen, 
San Andreas. 

Calaveras Independent, San Andreas. 

Calaveras Mountaineer, Angel's Camp. 

Calaveras Times, San Andreas. 

Calaveras Union, San Andreas. 

California Mountain Messenger, La Porte — See Moun- 
tain Messenger and Gibsonville Herald, Gibsonville 

California Stoats Zeitung, Mokelumne Hill. 

Central Calif ornian, Placerville. 

Chronicle, Bridgeport — See Bo die Chronicle. 

Chronicle, Markleeville — lone. 

Chronicle-Unipn, Bridgeport. 

Citizen, Columbia. 

Coloma Times, Placerville, Coloma. 

Columbia Clipper, Columbia — See Columbia Gazette. 

Columbia Gazette, Columbia, merged with Gazette and 
Southern Mines Advertiser. 

Columbia News, Columbia. 

Columbia Star, Columbia. 

Columbia Times, Columbia. 



Columbian, Columbia. 

Co so Mining News, Darwin. 

Courier, Copperopolis. 

Courier, Havilah. 

Courier, Shasta. 

Coyote, Nevada City. 

Daily Bo die Standard, Bodie — See Standard News. 

Daily National Gazette, Nevada City — See Nevada Daily 
Gazette, North San Juan Times. 

Daily Transcript, Nevada City. 

Daily Union, Grass Valley. 

Democrat, Downieville. 

Democratic Age, Sonora. 

Democratic Signal, Auburn. 

Democratic Standard, Jackson. 

Downieville Standard, Downieville — See Downieville 

Weekly Standard. 
Echo, Downieville. 

El Dorado County Journal, Diamond Springs. 
El Dorado County Union, Placerville. 
El Dorado News, Coloma, Placerville. 

El Dorado County Republican, Placerville — See Moun- 
tain Democrat. 

El Dorado Republican, Placerville — Second paper under 
that name. 



Empire County Argus, Coloma — See Tri-Weekly Argus, 
Tri-Weekly Index, Tri-Weekly Register, Semi- 
Weekly Observer, published in Placerville. 

Enquirer, Dutch Flat. 

Fillmore Banner, Quincy. 

Foothill Democrat, San Andreas. 

Foothills Ensign, Sutter Creek. 

Foothill Weekly, Grass Valley. 

Forum, Dutch Flat — See Placer Times. 

Free Press, Bodie. 

Gazette, Georgetown. 

Gazette, Monitor. 

Gazette, Nevada City. 

Gem, Georgetown. 

Georgetown Weekly News, Georgetown, merged with 
Sierra Democrat, Forest City. 

Gibsonville Herald, Gibsonville, with supplement called 
St. Louis News — See Mountain Messenger, La Porte. 

Gibsonville Trumpet, Gibsonville — See Mountain Mes- 
senger, La Porte. 
Granite Journal, Granite and Folsom. 

Grass Valley Telegraph, Grass Valley — See National 

Grass Valley National Weekly, Grass Valley — See Daily 
National Gazette, Nevada City. 

Grass Valley Morning Union, Grass Valley. 



Grass Valley Republican , Grass Valley — Became Truckee 

Greenville Bulletin, Greenville. 
Havilah Miner, Havilah. 
Homer Mining Index, Lundy. 
Hydraulic Press, North San Juan — See Iowa Hill News 

and San Juan Press. 
Independent, Jackson. 
Independent, North San Juan. 
Inyo Independent, Independence. 
Inyo Lancet, Independence. 
lone News, lone. 
Iowa Hill News, Iowa Hill — See North San Juan Star, 

Hydraulic Press, San Juan Press. 
Iowa Hill Patriot, Iowa Hill. 
Journal, Weaverville — Took over the Times. 
Journal, Yreka. 

Mammoth City Herald, Mammoth City. 
Mammoth City Times, Mammoth City. 
Mariposa Chronicle, Mariposa — See Mariposa Gazette. 
Mariposa Democrat, Hornitos and Mariposa. 
Mariposa Free Press, Mariposa. 
Mariposa Gazette — See Chronicle. 
Mariposa Mail, Mariposa. 
Mariposa Star, Mariposa. 
Miner's Advocate. Coloma, Diamond Springs, Folsom — 

See El Dorado County Journal. 



Miner's Spectacles, Nevada City — Also known as Mug- 
gins Mirror. 

Miner's Spy Glass, Nevada City. 

Mining Journal, Grass Valley. 

Morning News, Bodie — See Standard News. 

Morning Transcript, Nevada City. 

Morning Union, Grass Valley — Titles vary. 

Mountain Courier, Yankee Jim's. 

Mountain Democrat, Placerville — See El Dorado Re- 

Mountain Echo, Angels Camp. 

Mountain Echo, Downieville — Became Sierra Citizen. 

Mountain Herald, Yreka — See Yreka Union. 

Mountain Messenger, Downieville — See Gibsonville 
Herald, Gibsonville Trumpet, La Porte California 

Mountain Messenger, Gibsonville. 

Mountain News, San Andreas. 

Mountain Whig, Sonora. 

Muggins Mirror, Nevada City — Also known as Miner's 

National, Quincy. 

Nevada Democrat, Nevada City — See Young America. 

Nevada Daily Gazette, Nevada City — See Grass Valley 
National Weekly, Daily National Gazette. 

Nevada City Daily Transcript, Nevada City. 

Nevada City Herald, Nevada City. 



Nevada Journal, Nevada City. 

Nevada Mining Journal, Grass Valley — See Nevada City 
Daily Transcript. 

Nevada National, Grass Valley , Grass Valley Telegraph, 
Grass Valley National Weekly. 

News, Murphys. 

North Calif ornian, Oroville — Became Morning Adver- 

North San Juan Star, North San Juan — Became Hy- 
draulic Press. 

North San Juan Times, North San Juan. 

Northern Argus, Horsetown. 

Northern Journal, Yreka — See Yreka Weekly Journal. 

Old Mountaineer, Quincy — See Plumas Argus. 

Old Oaken Bucket, Downieville. 

Oroville Mercury, Oroville — Later Daily Mercury. 

Oroville Weekly Union, Oroville — See Butte Record, 
Record Union, Chico Record. 

Oroville Register, Oroville — See Butte County Register, 

Owl, Jackson. 

Panamint News, Panamint. 

Patriot, Iowa Hill — See Dutch Flat Enquirer. 

Pioneer, Copper City. 

Placer Argus, Auburn. 

Placer Courier, Yankee Jim's, Forest Hill. 

Placer Democratic Weekly, Auburn. 

Placer Herald, Auburn. 



Placer Press, Auburn — See Auburn Whig, 

Placer Times, Dutch Flat. 

Placerville American, Placerville. 

Placerville Appeal, Placerville. 

Placerville Courier, Placerville. 

Placerville Herald, Placerville. 

Placerville Mirror, Placerville. 

Placerville News, Placerville. 

Placerville Recorder, Placerville. 

Placerville Republican, Placerville. 

Placerville Semi-weekly Observer, Placerville. 

Placerville Weekly News — Probably same as Placerville 
News, Placerville. 

Plumas Argus, Quincy. 

Plumas Democrat, Quincy. 

Plumas National, Quincy. 

Plumas Standard, Quincy. 

Prospector, Jackson. 

Prospector, Quincy. 

Quampeag Coyote, Mokelumne Hill. 

Quincy Union, Quincy. 

St. Louis News — See Gibsonville Herald. 

Standard, Quincy, Downieville. 

San Andreas Independent, San Andreas — Became Stock- 
ton Morning Independent. 

San Andreas Register, San Andreas. 



San Juan Press, North San Juan — See Iowa Hill News. 

Scott Valley Mirror, Fort Jones. 

Scott Valley Semi-weekly News, Fort Jones. 

Sentinel, Jackson. 

Shasta Courier, Shasta. 

Shasta Herald, Shasta. 

Shasta Refubican y Shasta. 

Shasta Vigilante, Shasta. 

Sierra Advocate, Downieville. 

Sierra Citizen — See Mountain Echo, Downieville. 

Sierra County News, Downieville. 

Sierra Democrat, Forest City — See Georgetown Weekly 


Sierra Free Press, Forest City. 

Silver Mountain Miner, Silver Mountain. 

Siskiyou Chronicle, Yreka. 

Siskiyou Herald, Yreka. 

Sonora Herald, Sonora. 

Sonora Mountain Whig, Sonora. 

Sonora Union Democrat, Sonora — See Downieville 

Standard, Downieville. 

Standard News, Bodie. 

Stanislaus Index, Knights Ferry — See Knights Ferry Bee. 

Stars and Strifes, Auburn. 



States Rights Journal, Auburn — See Democratic Signal, 

Student's Banner, Jackson. 

Sun, Meadow Lake. 

Sutter Creek Independent, Sutter Creek. 

Times, Weaverville — See Weaverville Journal. 

Trinity Gazette, Douglas City. 

Trinity Journal, Weaverville. 

Trinity Press, Weaverville. 

Tri-Weekly Index, Placerville — See Em fire County Ar- 
gus, Coloma, Argus y Placerville. 

Tri-Weekly Register, Placerville. 

Trumpet, La Porte — See La Porte Mountain Messenger. 

Tuolumne Courier, Columbia, Sonora. 

Tuolumne News, Tuolumne. 

Union, Yreka — See Mountain Herald. 

Union Advocate, Auburn. 

Union Democrat, Sonora. 

Union Record, Jackson — See Amador Dispatch, Jackson. 

War Club, North San Juan. 

W eaverville Democrat, Weaverville. 

Weekly Ledger, Volcano. 

Weekly Democrat, Weaverville. 

Weekly News, Georgetown. 

Weekly Butte Record, BidwelPs Bar, Oroville. 



Weekly Standard, Quincy. 

Whig — See Placer Press, Auburn. 

Young America — See Nevada Democrat, Nevada City. 

Yreka Journal, Semi-Weekly Journal, Yreka. 

Yreka Weekly Journal — See Northern Journal, Yreka. 



Alphabetical List of 
Mining Town Editors 

Allen, James Daily Transcript, Nevada City 

A'Neal, J. W. Union, Chronicle, Yreka 

Anderson, James Placer Herald, Auburn 

Anderson, W. F. Nevada Democrat, Nevada City 

Armor, George . . Calaveras Independent, San Andreas 

Arthur, William Union Democrat, Sonora 

Avaline, O. D. . Sentinel, Central Calif ornian, Placervillc 
Avery, Benj. P Hydraulic Press, North San Juan 

Badlam, Alexander Prospector, Quincy 

Baker, George H. Granite Journal, Granite City 

Bail, Thomas Plumas Standard, Quincy 

Barnes, W. W Herald, Mammoth City 

Bassett, James M. Northern Journal, Yreka 

Beal, C. R. Calaveras Citizen, San Andreas 

Bean, E. F Daily Gazette, Nevada City 

Beggs, William Stars and Stripes, Auburn 

Bengay, J. M. Calaveras Chronicle, Mokelumne Hill 
Benham Courier, Copperopolis 



Bennett, H. C Daily Union, Grass Valley 

Bireley, Rev. B Nevada Journal, Nevada City 

Boardman, J. H. National, Grass Valley 

Bogart, R. D. . . Lake Mining Review, Mammoth City 

Boggs, J. C. Stars and Strifes, Auburn 

Boust, E. B. Enquirer, Dutch Flat 

Placer Courier, Yankee Jim's 
Iowa Hill Patriot, Iowa Hill 

Bowman Republican, Placer ville 

Boynton, Charles Calaveras Chronicle, Mokelumne Hill 

Owl, Jackson 
Sentinel, Jackson 

Bradley, L. Granite Journal, Folsom 

Briggs, R. M. Amador Ledger 6? Record, Jackson 

Brown, H. H. Union, Yreka 

Brown, N. P. Daily Transcript, Nevada City 

Miner's Spectacles, Nevada City 

Buckbee, John R. Union, Quincy 

Bull, Oscar Mountain Echo, Downieville 

Byrne, W. S. National, Grass Valley 

Daily Union, Grass Valley 

Campbell, W. Sierra Democrat, Forest City 

Carter, W. L. Pioneer, Copper City 

Casamayou, A. Daily Transcript, Nevada City 

Caulkins, Silas Fillmore Banner, Quincy 



Caystile, T. J Mountain Democrat, Placerville 

Cazneau, T. N. Gazette, Columbia 

Chalf ant, P. A. Inyo Independent, Independence 

Chalfant, W. A. Inyo Independent, Independence 

Charles, L. C. Plumas National, Quincy 

Christman, Enos Herald, Sonora 

Clark, M. B. Prospector, Jackson 

Cole, Richard True Republican, Coloma 

Central Calif ornian, Placerville 

El Dorado Union, Placerville 

El Dorado Republican, Placerville 

American, Placerville 

Collier, W. J Bee, Knights Ferry 

Crawford, E. L. Gem, Georgetown 

Crawford, J. Democrat, Weaverville 

Crosette, George H. Weekly Butte Record, BidwelPs Bar 

Culver, E. S. Scott Valley News, Fort Jones 

Curtz, Lewis Plumas Standard, Quincy 

Daingerfield, E. A Ledger, Volcano 

Davidge, R. A. Democrat, Young America, Nevada City 
Davidson, Dr. D. M. . . Scott Valley Mirror, Fort Jones 

Deal, Marcellus Transcript, Nevada City 

DeCourcey, H. A Nevada Journal, Nevada City 

Calaveras Chronicle, Mokelumne Hill 

DeGolia, D. Republican, Placerville 



Delim, D Tri-Weekly Herald, Nevada City 

Dennis, J. H. Independent, Jackson 

Dietz American, Placerville 

Dinsmore, W. G. Citizen, Columbia 

Donovan, C. Union Democrat, Sonora 

Dormer, J. H. Sierra Advocate, Downieville 

Dosh, Samuel H. Courier, Shasta 

Duchow, J. C. Gazette, Columbia 

Tuolumne Courier, Columbia 

Duchow, W. A. Tuolumne Courier, Columbia 

Dunn, J. W. Mountain Whig, Sonora 

Eagon, J. A. Amador Ledger cjf Record, Jackson 

Evans, B. H. Scott Valley News, Fort Jones 

Ewer, Warren B. Telegraph, Grass Valley 

National, Grass Valley 
Ewing, W. Folsom Dispatch, Folsom 

Fair, Capt. W. D. Chronicle, Yreka 

Fairchild, O. L. C. Observer, Placerville 

Fairchild, J. D Observer, Placerville 

Falconer, Col. Thomas Gazette, Columbia 

Fellows, Hart Stars and Strifes, Auburn 

Fitch, Thomas Republican, Placerville 

Folger, Robert M. Chronicle, Markleeville 

Forbes, W. J. Sierra Democrat, Downieville 

Empire County Argus, Coloma 



Foster, John S. Miner's Spy Glass, Nevada City 

Francisco, Albert N. Union Democrat , Sonora 

Freaner, George Union, Yreka 

Fredonyer, Dr. A. Old Mountaineer, Quincy 

Fuller, N. W. Empire County Argus, Coloma 

Galloway, Judge R. Sierra Citizen, Downieville 

Garfield, S. Miner's Advocate, Diamond Springs, Coloma 

Gear, H. L. Plumas National, Quincy 

Gelwicks, D. W. Miner's Advocate, Dia. Springs, Coloma 

Mountain Democrat, Placerville 

Gilbert, Edward Placer Times, Dutch Flat 

Giles, W. T. Mountain Echo, Downieville 

Godfrey, G. K. Vigilante, Shasta 

Goodale Inyo Lancet, Independence 

Gore, George W. Star, Columbia 

Gunn, Dr. Lewis C. Herald, Sonora 

Hall, L. P. Amador Dispatch, Jackson 

Placer Democratic Weekly, Auburn 

Hamilton, H. Calaveras Chronicle, Mokelumne Hill 

Harman, F. H El Dorado News, Coloma 

Harris, T. S. News, Panamint 

Coso Mining News, Darwin 

Hart, James L Northern Argus, Horsetown 



Hawkins, Hiram Whig, Auburn 

Placer Press, Auburn 
Union Advocate, Auburn 

Heade Gibsonville Herald, Gibsonville 

Heckendorn, J. . Big Tree Bulletin, Calaveras Big Trees 

and Murphys 

Columbia Clipper, Columbia 
Helm, Alfred Gibsonville Herald, Gibsonville 

Supplement, St. Louis News 

Hill Inyo Lancet, Independence 

Hinckley, J. C. Republican, Shasta 

Hogan, E. T. Plumas Democrat, Quincy 

Holmes, L. A. Gazette, Mariposa 

Howe, H. J. Democrat, Weaverville 

Hulbert, Horace Gazette, Georgetown 

Hulbert, Maud Gazette, Georgetown 

January, William Mountain Democrat, Placer ville 

Keene, James R. Shasta Herald, Republican, Shasta 

Kellogg, W. W. Union, Quincy 

Kennedy, J. B. Bee, Knights Ferry 

Kies, George O. Mountain Democrat, Placerville 

True Republican, Coloma 
Times, Coloma 

King, Homer Democratic Standard, Jackson 

Kooser, B. P. Independent, San Andreas 



Lancey, P. M. Gazette, Columbia 

Langton, J. C Mountain Echo, Downieville 

Laurence, J. H. Free Press, Mariposa 

Star, Mariposa 

Lewis, A. C. Calaveras Union, San Andreas 

Lewis, John C. Old Mountaineer, Quincy 

Plumas Argus, Quincy 

Lewis, S. G. Alpine Miner, Monitor 

Union, Oroville 
Littlefield, Edward C. ... Stars and Strifes, Auburn 

Lovejoy, John K Old Mountaineer, Quincy 

Lynch, Matt Plumas Standard, Quincy 

Standard, Downieville 
Lynch, Philip Placer Democratic Weekly, Auburn 

Marvin, John G. Herald, Sonora 

Miller, W. H Daily Union, Grass Valley 

Mills, M. E. Whig, Auburn 

Mitchell, Charles H Placer Herald, Auburn 

Daily Union, Grass Valley 

Auburn Herald, Auburn 

Mitchell, "Tabb" Placer Herald, Auburn 

Moffitt, H. C. Republican, Shasta 

Murray, Walter Herald, Sonora 

McCallum, J. G. Weekly News, Georgetown 

McDonald, Calvin Mountain Echo, Downieville 

Sierra Citizen, Downieville 



McElwain, Edward Old Mountaineer, Quincy 

McNeil, H. B. American Flag, Sonora 

Nixon, Robert Journal, Yreka 

Oliver, J. W. Columbia Gazette, Columbia 

Columbian Weekly, Columbia 

Columbian, Columbia 

Weekly News, Georgetown 

Olmstead, J. P. Star, North San Juan 

O'Meara, J. Calaveras Chronicle, Mokelumne Hill 

O'Sullivan, J. Herald, Sonora 

Sierra Democrat, Forest City 

Palache, J. News, Murphys 

Parburt, G. R. Columbia Gazette, Columbia 

Parker, James E. Inyo Independent, Independence 

"Parthenon" Quampeag Coyote, Mokelumne Hill 

Patterson, John Miner's Spectacles, Nevada City 

Payne, George Amador Dispatch, Jackson 

Penry, William Amador Dispatch, Jackson 

"Peter Noodles" Quampeag Coyote, Mokelumne Hill 

Poland, R. C. Democratic Signal, Auburn 

Price, George F. Union, Yreka 

Ransom Courier, Copperopolis 

Reed, Myron Hill Mountain Echo, Angels Camp 



Reynolds, Angevine Mariposa Mail, Mariposa 

Ridge, John Rollin Nevada Nat. Weekly, Grass Valley 
Roberts, George D. Nevada Nat. Weekly, Grass Valley 

Robinson, R. E. Tri-Weekly Herald, Nevada City 

Rockwell, E. A. Herald, Sonora 

Rolfe, T. H. Nevada Democrat, Nevada City 

Ross, J. W. Star, Mariposa 

Sargent, A. A. Nevada Journal, Nevada City 

Scobey, Joseph W Democratic Signal, Auburn 

Seabough, S. Granite Journal, Folsom 

Searls, Niles Nevada Democrat, Nevada City 

Selkirk, W. A. Stars and Strifes, Auburn 

Shannon, John Placer Democratic Weekly, Auburn 

Sharratts, George L. American Eagle, Sonora 

Shepard, W. A. Placer Herald, Auburn 

Sherman Placer Democratic Weekly, Auburn 

Shipley, Henry J. Nevada Democrat, Nevada City 

Telegraph, Grass Valley 
National, Grass Valley 

Shoemaker, Ruf us Nevada National, Grass Valley 

Skelton, John P. Nevada Journal, Nevada City 

Miners Spectacles, Nevada City 

Skillman, A. Courier, Shasta 

"Slimface" Quampeag Coyote, Mokelumne Hill 

Smith, C. F. National, Grass Valley 



Sneden, Seth American Flag, Sonora 

Snyder, Fred . Miner's Advocate, Diamond Spgs., Coloma 
Empire County Argus, Diamond Springs 

Spear, W. S Bugle, Downieville 

Spencer, J. D. Mountain News, San Andreas 

Tuolumne News, Tuolumne 

Springer, T. A. Amador Ledger, Jackson 

El Dorado News, Placerville 

El Dorado Republican, Placerville 

Weekly Ledger, Volcano 

Steele, R. J. States Rights Journal, Auburn 

Stewart, Capt. W. Frank. Empire County Argus, Coloma 

Stidger, O. P. San Juan Press, North San Juan 

Nevada Daily Gazette, Nevada City 
Marysville Journal, Marysville 

Tallmadge, D. P. Empire County Argus, Coloma 

Tallmadge, George E. . Old Oaken Bucket, Downieville 

Sierra Citizen, Downieville 

Townsend, James W. E. Union, Grass Valley 

Homer Mining Index, Lundy 

Turner, J. D. Union, Yreka 

Tyson, J. Union, Yreka 

Urmy, J. B. Tuolumne Courier, Columbia 

Wagner, A. . California Stoats Zeitung, Mokelumne Hill 



Waite, E. G. Daily Transcript, Nevada City 

Nevada Journal, Nevada City 

Walkup, Joseph Placer Herald, Auburn 

Wallace, W. J. Prospector, Jackson 

Ward, John S. Plumas Democrat, Quincy 

Waters, Thomas Star, North San Juan 

Weed, Ed. Bulletin, Greenville 

Whicher, George Stanislaus Index, Knights Ferry 

White, John Herald, Sonora 

Wolcott, Oliver American Flag, Sonora 

Yarnell, D. J News, Placerville 

Yarnell, H. A News, Placerville 

Youcham, D. News, Columbia 

News, Murphys 


Acknowledgments and Bibliography 

|" WISH to express my appreciation to the Librarians of 
various County Libraries of the sections covered, the 
Bancroft Library, and to the many friends who have con- 
tributed their knowledge to the compilation of this book. 
The newspapers reproduced are from the collection in 
the library of The Society of California Pioneers. 

Following are a few of the more important sources 
from which material was taken. To list all sources would 
make a volume in itself. 

Annals of Trinity County , Isaac Cox, reprint, 

Eugene, Oregon, 1940. 
History of California Newspapers, Edward C. 

Kemble, New York, 1925. 
List of California Periodicals, issued previous to the 

completion of the Trans-Continental Telegraph, 

Aug. 15, 1846-Oct. 24, 1861. Thesis, Catherine 

Chandler, Stanford University, 1899-1900. 

California Library Assn. No. 7. 
One Man's Gold, Letters and Journals of a Forty- 

Niner, Enos Christman, New York, 1930. 



Pioneers, the engaging tale of three early California 
presses, Carl I. Wheat, Los Angeles, 1934. 

Records of a California Family , diaries and letters of 
Dr. Lewis C. Gunn, San Diego, 1928. 

Saddle Bags In Siskiyou, Roy Jones, Yreka, 1953. 

Shasta County History , Rosena Giles, Biobooks, 

Oakland, 1949. 
Southern California Newspapers, 1851-1876, Muir 

Dawson, Los Angeles, 1950. 
Union List of American Newspapers, 1821-1936, 

New York, 1939. 




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